Buridan’s Ass, or How to be Rational by Being Arbitrary
A donkey comes to two bales of hay, equally far from him and equal in size, quality, etc. He does not know how to decide between the two bundles of enticing food, and starves to death while vacillating endlessly between the two options.
What should the donkey have done?
Fields to think about: decision theory, probability, history of ideas.